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China’s growth and dominance:  It is well accepted all over the world that during the last one decade or so, the world economy has been largely driven by the industrial and economic growth in China, which is more than any other individual country. China’s share of world output has gone up from 6.3% in 1996 to 17.8% in 2016.

China is the world’s 3rd largest country after Russia and Canada. China is only 15% of the global economy but contributes 25 to 30% to global growth. China’s installed capacity and production of steel, aluminium, coal, power and most of the chemical products have increased by leaps and bounds in the last ten years. China is the largest single consuming country in the world for chemicals. It’s share in the global chemical consumption is now around – 30%.

Of the global annual production of around 58 million tonne of aluminium, China’s share is around 32 million tonne. Chinese manufacturers continue to augment production capacities in the North-Western provinces at lower cost. This is expected to increase global aluminium supply in the coming years.

Steel production in the world is dominated by China and followed by Japan. China’s crude steel production is around 790 million tonne per annum, which is around 52% of the world crude steel production.

Reflecting China’s growing focus on the production of higher-value goods, the output of computers, telecommunications equipment and other electronics rose 12.1 percent on year.

Such steep increase in capacity and production with regard to several products inevitably resulted in China aggressively seeking export market to find outlet for the products, as the installed capacity and production growth has been much higher than the domestic demand growth for the products.

In the process ,China’s thrust on export have created problems for the other countries, as Chinese prices have been much less than the price quoted by producers in other countries, leading to fall in production or industrial plant closures in several countries including USA and India.

For example, production of citric acid in China which was 6,00,000 tonne in 2003 climbed to 15,00,000 tonne in 2016. China now exports citric acid to more than 100 countries. As a result of export penetration by China, several citric acid plants have closed in number of countries. China now supplies 60% of the global demand for citric acid.

China has been repeatedly accused by several countries of artificially keeping the price of the Chinese products low to compete in the world market, by providing soft cushions for the Chinese industries by way of concessions , unsustainable state subsidized production practices, , soft loans etc. Also, Chinese industries have been criticized for not observing the required environmental norms and violating the safety issues for the sake of boosting the capacity build up and production.

While the growth rate in China has slowed in 2017 compared to 2016, these growth rates remain higher than in any other country in the world.

According to a survey of a basket of 16 chemicals studied by the European Union of Chamber of Commerce of China, as many as eleven face low capacity utilisation issues in China.

A few examples of plant closures in the past.


Capacity closure

Number of units closed

Petroleum refineries

57.95 million tonne

84 (below 2 million tonne per annum for each unit)


4.13 million tonne



5 million tonne

Pesticide unit


25 (which were engaged in pesticide technical)


19 million pieces


Caustic soda

9.093  million tonne



6.4 million tonne


China’s vulnerability to global trade war

China’s total debt has been building up in the economy during the last several years to support growth. China’s debt surpassed 300% of GDP in 2017.

The People’s Bank of China has enabled the buildup of debt with “huge lending” to commercial banks. Debt-fueled consumer demand accounted for 71% of China’s economic growth in the first three quarters of 2016. China’s economic growth is being held up through extremely high credit generation, that is not sustainable for long without substantial damage to the economy and financial system

In such difficult scenario, China’s product offerings have to shift from mid to high end in the value chain based on innovation driven development to remain globally competitive without price slashing in the coming years. China has to upgrade its manufacturing sector and take market share from high tech countries such as Japan, South Korea,USA and Europe for higher end products. Obviously, to achieve such requirements, China’s export market has to be sustained and it’s global market penetration has to be enhanced.

In such scenario, any fall in Chinese export due to trade war can cause huge setback to China’s plans and strategies.

China’s compulsive need for export

Overcapacity in industrial enterprises is the biggest problem that China is facing today

China now has far more capacity than it – or for that matter, the world – needs. In some cases, over capacity exist to the level of 30% of domestic need.

Over capacity has been built up not only by domestic private Chinese companies but also by foreign companies, who target both Chinese and global market.

The overcapacity problem has been exacerbated in recent times by the clear slowdown of China’s economy. Particularly, impactful is the slowdown in infrastructure projects and in the real estate sectors. Over capacity in the manufacturing sector could take far longer to be sorted out, especially given the state of the global economy

To tackle such conditions and avoid an impending crisis, China faces compulsive need to boost export, as it’s domestic demand cannot absorb the production at higher capacity utilisation level that are needed to sustain the economy.

Trade attack by USA

US President Trump announced at least $50 billion worth of annual tariffs and other penalties on China, due to what US terms as “China’s theft of technology and trade secrets”, which US administration officials say has robbed American companies of billions of dollars in revenue and killed thousands of jobs.

The measures of US government are targeted at imported Chinese goods in as many as 100 categories — hitting everything from shoes and clothing to consumer electronics — and will impose restrictions on Chinese investments in the United States..

President Trump says that he has instructed the Treasury Department to pursue restrictions on certain types of Chinese investments to counter China’s ambitious industrial policy, which aims to dominate cutting-edge sectors like artificial intelligence and mobile technology.

The announcement comes hard on the heels of Mr. Trump’s tariffs on steel and aluminum imports and are aimed at combating a flood of cheap metals into the United States, including Chinese steel.

What about vulnerability of USA and other countries?

In China, 31% of the ownership of industrial and production enterprises is by foreign companies and 21% is owned by state owned enterprises and the remaining 48% by domestic private sector.

Billions of dollars are being invested by foreign companies in China year after year .

In the year 2016 alone, following investment have been made

Mode of utilising foreign investment

Realised FDI value in US$ 100 million

Period : January to December


Foreign direct investment


Equity joint venture


Contractual joint venture


Wholly foreign owned enterprise


Share company with foreign investment


Almost every major multinational company in the world have investment in China. For example, BASF, multi national giant , has invested approximately €6 billion and above €8 billion with partners in China during the last 20 years.

Clearly, entry into the Chinese market is a high priority for foreign companies, in order to participate in this major growth region.. Foreign companies remain optimistic about the prospects and opportunities in the Chinese market and continue to invest in the country.One strategy the foreign companies are adopting is in the building of local manufacturing facilities in China.

Any fall in economy or trade of China will adversely impact the performance and profit of foreign companies operating in China, most of which are multinational companies based in USA, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe and Middle East region. In view of their huge investment in China, any problems faced by them in China will directly and indirectly impact the economy of the developed countries where these multinational companies are based.

U S President Trump believes that the imposition of tariffs will safeguard American jobs, but many economists say the impact of price increases for users of steel and aluminium, such as the auto and oil industries, will destroy more jobs in USA than curbs on imports create. Further, the effect of the China tariffs imposed by USA would have a bigger impact on United States consumers, who are heavy purchasers of electronics, clothing and other Chinese products.

China has argued that both USA and China benefit from the flow of Chinese money into the United States.

Why US think trade war necessary ?

Though US President claims that US has imposed steep tariff on Chinese goods to protect US economy., this may not be entirely true. It has to be noted that he has not imposed similar tariffs on other European countries and India so far, though these regions also have substantial share in US imports. Obviously, the focus of US is on hurting China.

China, in recent years, has shown expansionist tendency with its aggressive postures in South China sea, Senkaku island , threatening India with border war and claiming India’s Arunachal Pradesh as its own and several other claims. China’s aggressive take over of Tibet is a classic example of China’s territorial expansion targets.

Last year, military spending in China was budgeted to increase by 7 percent, to 1.044 trillion yuan ($164.60 billion) about one-quarter of the proposed U.S. defence spending for the year, which is obviously to support China’s war like posture towards it’s neighbours.

Apart from territorial expansion ambition, China has also been focusing on economic domination of the world. It has considerably penetrated into the economy of weaker neighbours such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Myanmar and others.

Key infrastructure projects across Asia,Africa And Europe under Belt and Road (BRI), are aimed at extending China’s global influence on the basis of its economic prowess. BRI is interwoven with official efforts to export Chinese rail, hydropower and other technology and steel, aluminum and other industrial goods. Around $1.8 trillion of infrastructure investments across Asia, Africa and the Middle East include Chinese money or other involvement.

Obviously, USA and several other countries are concerned about China’s aggressive approach and are of the view that China has to be checked to avoid it becoming an aggressive super power, perhaps, even stronger than USA.

While military warfare with China is ruled out, the only option left for USA is to impose check and control on China by starting a trade war.

Can China afford trade war ?

China says that it does not want a trade war with the United States but it will defend its interests, if US would choose to launch a trade war.

However, it is extremely doubtful as to whether China can sustain a trade war, since Chinese economy will virtually collapse if the export of Chinese products would be considerably curbed.

It remains to be seen as to what would be President Trump’s further strategies and whether US would ask it’s allies also to join in the trade war against China. While the allies may not go to the full extent in supporting USA, nevertheless, they are watching with sustained interest the moves of President Trump and perhaps, want US President to succeed.

(Author N. S. Venkataraman is a trustee with the “Nandini Voice for the Deprived,” a not-for-profit organization that aims to highlight the problems of downtrodden and deprived people and support their cause. To promote probity and ethical values in private and public life and to deliberate on socio-economic issues in a dispassionate and objective manner.)

Published Date: Friday, March 23rd, 2018 | 10:22 PM

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